Monday, May 28, 2007


hello , i'm Christian safi , i choose this subject ( drugs addiction ) especially in lebanon . because the average age at hospitalization became around 30 years; the first intake of drugs between 13 and 35 years (mean 20). and The sex ratio is 8:2 male to female. The war has especially affected men in their encounter with drugs. So i'll try my best to give all information about this probleme , so i can help all the lebanese young to evitate taking drugs and become addicted ...

Thursday, May 24, 2007

The basis for addiction
There is a growing viewpoint that drug addiction is a form of dysfunctional learning. Drugs of abuse take over the neurological circuitry involved in motivation and reward. This leads to aberrant learning. Because of this, drug-associated cues can trigger a desire to use, as well as unconscious or compulsive drug-seeking behavior, with the sense that voluntary control over drug use is lost.
The stages of problematic use could be defined as preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication, and withdrawal/negative effect. As drugs activate neuronal pathways in the brain, they get 'laid down' stronger and stronger with each use. These pathways also activate faster with each use. The quicker the effect, or 'high', the stronger the dysfunctional learning. In addition, objects, people, or places also seem to to be strongly associated with the drug experience, making them 'triggers' to 'cravings' and increase the chances of further use. Those that favor the biological models of addiction see these neuro-chemical changes in the brain as evidence that addiction is a disease, though research has shown that this learned behavior can be unlearned. Unfortunately, substance abuse also inhibits further learning, meaning continued use makes unlearning more challenging.
Abused drugs can also modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neuronal circuits associated with the addiction process, suggesting a way for the behavioral consequences of drug-taking to become reinforced by learning mechanisms. Effectively assessing where an individual is in addiction and tailoring treatment to this would make treatment outcomes more effective. This may be why there has been no outstanding results in terms of treatments for addiction with the most significant factor in recovery being the user therapist relationship In addition to determining where someone is in terms of addiction, indications as to where they are in their current cycle of use: Crash, withdrawal or extinction would also inform appropriate treatment interventions.
Animal studies have shown that drug availability (over and above the actual effects of the substance) are associated with stimuli exposure to objects associated with use; these trigger the release of adrenaline (which causes "fight or flight" response). The excitation can be perceived as a 'need' to use.
Glutamate, Dopamine, and Serotonin have long been associated with highly dependent addictions are well established as key to the compulsive behavior related to cocaine and amphetamine use,Norepinephrine, GABA& NMDA are also very important in terms of learning and 'Addiction' With GABA seeming strong in terms of alcohol abuse and the corresponding crash.(For another view of drug addiction, see Rat Park.)'


Drug addiction is a condition characterized by compulsive drug intake, craving and seeking, despite negative consequences associated with drug use.
Although being
addicted implies drug dependence, it is possible to be dependent on a drug without being addicted. People that take drugs to treat diseases and disorders, which interfere with their ability to function, may experience improvement of their condition.
Such persons are dependent on the drug, but are not addicted. One is addicted, rather than merely dependent, if one exhibits compulsive behavior towards the drug and has difficulty quitting it.
To qualify as being dependent a person must
Take a drug regularly
Experience unpleasant symptoms if discontinued, which makes stopping difficult.
Substance abuse can occur with or without dependency, and with or without addiction. Substance abuse is any use of a substance, which causes more harm than good.
In some cases, whether a substance causes more harm than good, or more good than harm, may be a matter of opinion rather than a matter of fact.
The phenomenon of drug
addiction has occurred to some degree throughout recorded history (see "opium"), though modern agricultural practices, improvements in access to drugs, advancements in biochemistry, and dramatic increases in the recommendation of drug usage by clinical practitioners have exacerbated the problem significantly in the 20th century. Improved means of active biological agent manufacture and the introduction of synthetic compounds, such as methamphetamine are also factors contributing to drug addiction.
The addictive nature of drugs varies from substance to substance, and from individual to individual. Drugs such as
codeine or alcohol, for instance, typically require many more exposures to addict their users than drugs such as heroin or cocaine. Likewise, a person who is psychologically or genetically predisposed to addiction is much more likely to suffer from it.

Although dependency on hallucinogens like LSD ("acid") and psilocybin (key hallucinogen in "magic mushrooms") is listed as Substance-Related Disorder in the DSM-IV, most psychologists do not classify them as addictive drugs. Experts on addiction say that the use of LSD and psilocybin causes neither psychological nor physical dependency[citation needed]. Many users report feeling less desire to use these drugs after every use[citation needed].
There are anecdotal reports of psychological addiction to recreational stimulants such as
MDMA (ecstasy) and a dissociative psychedelic ketamine. Pills sold on the street as "ecstasy" often contain adulterants, which may be the addictive compound.
Drug addiction has two components:
physical dependency, and psychological dependency. Physical dependency occurs when a drug has been used habitually and the body has become accustomed to its effects. The person must then continue to use the drug in order to feel normal, or its absence will trigger the symptoms of withdrawal. Psychological dependency occurs when a drug has been used habitually and the mind has become emotionally reliant on its effects, either to elicit pleasure or relieve pain, and does not feel capable of functioning without it. Its absence produces intense cravings, which are often brought on or magnified by stress. A dependent person may have either aspects of dependency, but often has both.

Wednesday, May 23, 2007

"...when they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment [they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which ... make them go as they were out of their wittes..."

When the Spaniards conquered South America, they at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil. But after discovering that these claims were true, they legalized and taxed the leaf, taking 10 percent off the value of each crop. These taxes were for a time the main source of support for the Roman Catholic Church in the region. In 1569, Nicholas Monardes described the practice of the natives of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce "great contentment":

The coca leaf
For thousands of years,
South American indigenous peoples have chewed the coca leaf (Erythroxylum coca), a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including cocaine. The leaf was, and is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities—ancient Peruvian mummies have been found with the remains of coca leaves, and pottery from the time period depicts humans whose cheeks are bulged with the presence of something on which they are chewing.[4] However, it should be noted that there is no evidence that its habitual use has ever led to any of the negative consequences generally associated with habitual cocaine use today.[